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新概念第二册自学导读 Lessons16-17

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课文详注 Further notes on the text

1She must be at least thirty-five years old. 她至少也有35了。

(1)at least 是一固定短语,表示“至少:

He borrowed at least five books from the library.

他图书馆至少借了5本书。

If you can't clean the car, you can at least help me to clean it.

如你能擦车,你至少以帮我擦。

(2)我们已学过两年龄表示法。一是“数字+years old,作表语:

My father is fifty-seven, years old now.

我父亲在已57了。

一是“数字+ -year-old,作定语:

Last week, my four-year-old daughter, Sally, was in

vited to a children's party.

上周,我4的女儿应邀加一个儿童晚会。

2In spite of this…
尽管如此……

(1)in spite of为固定短语,为“管“尽管,以跟代或:

In spite of the rain, they went on their journey.

尽管下雨,他们还是继续旅行。

In spite of what you have said about her, she is much better than Mary.

管你说她什么,她比丽好得多。

(2)this 代指上,“她至少也有35这个事。

3This time, she will be a girl of seventeen. 这一次,她将扮演一个17的少女。

be在这里是“扮演的:

Tonight, Karen Marsh is Helen.

今晚伦·马什扮演海伦。

4In the play, she must appear in a bright red dress and long black stockings. 演出时她必须穿一鲜红色的裙和黑色的长筒袜。

(1)in在这中表示“穿“戴:

The girl in red over there is my neighbour.

那边那个穿红衣的女孩是我的邻居。

John was in a black dress this morning.

约翰今天上穿的是件黑衣。

(2)dress 一般指衣裙套裙,也以指外穿的衣或特定场穿的礼:

Everyone is in evening dress tonight.

今晚大家都穿了晚礼。

5Darling, it must be terrible to be grown up! 亲爱的,长大人真怕啊

(1)it 为先行,代替 to be grown up,这个定是真正的主语。如:

it is a pleasant thing to have many friends.

有许多朋是件令人愉悦的事。

(2)这的言外之是她还没有长大人,还是个姑娘,因为她用的是表示测的 must。(cf. 本课语法)

语法 Grammar in use

情助动 must

(1) must 一般译为“必须,以表示“必“命令或强制“邀请“决心“的责任等多义。它没有时和人称化,通常用在时和将时。在其他时中,must的有些义以由have to或 have got to补足。这 3形一般以互,但彼此是有差别的。用第一人称时,have to和have got to强调客观的求或外在的因,must则强调主观的求或表示说的人认为自己有事:

I have to look after the baby.

我得照管这孩。(因为客观因)

I must see the boss.

我必须。(主观求)

They must leave (tomorrow).

他们(天)必须出。

They had to leave.

他们(当时)得出。(过时中用 have to 代替)

They have had to leave.

(译文上)

(2)have to和 have got to往往以互:

I have to/have got to leave home every morning at 7:30.

我天早上7点就得离开家。

但是,always,sometimes 等频度副用时,用have to往往比用have got to好:

I often have to get up at 5. Do you ever have to get up at 5?

我常5点就得起床。你有时候也得5点起床?

have got to比have to上更加语化一些:

(3)在表达“难你能(……)的义时,一般用“Must you…?而用“Do you have to…?或“Have you got to…?:

(4)must还以用表示测:

He must be at home now.

他在肯定在家。

He must be mad to drive anywhere today!

他今天居然开车出,真是疯了

汇学习 Word study

1appear vi.

(1)出,显露:

Suddenly, a car appeared.

然,一辆汽车出了。

(2)当众露;登场(演出等):

I can't appear in this dress at the party.

我能在晚会上穿这身衣露。

Miss Marsh will appear in tonight's play.

在今晚的这场剧中,马什将会登场。

(3)似,看起好象(seem义):

She appears to know you.

她似认识你。

Now it appears you are wrong.

在看你是错的。

2grow vi.

(1)生长,长,育:

Trees of this kind don't grow in our country.

我们国家长这树。

How tall you've got! You've grown a lot.

你已这么高了你长了少。

(2)grow up 长,熟(其被动表示长大人):

Lucy has grown up a lot since I last saw her.

自我上次到她之,露西已熟了许多。

What do you want to do when you're grown up?

等你长大了,你想干什么?

3as的几用法

(1)作为介,它以表示“作为“以……身份等:

In this film, he appeared as a policeman.

在这部影片中,他扮演一警察。

As a mechanic, he can't always keep himself clean.

作为一机修工,他无法总身上干净。

(2)作为,它以表示“因为“正当……时候“以……方或“如……那样等义:

You must take care of the baby tomorrow as I am going to London.

由我伦敦,你天必须照料这孩。(因为,由)

As we were talking about him, he knocked at the door.

我们正谈论他的时候,他敲门了。(正当……时候)

She cooked the dinner as her mother taught her.

她按亲教她的方了晚。(以……方)

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